Non-banking financial institutions (NBFIs) consist of various types of financial institutions, of which Reserve Bank of India regulates and supervises three important categories – all India financial institutions (AIFIs), non-banking finance companies (NBFCs) and stand-alone primary dealers (PDs). While AIFIs largely undertake long-term financing in specific sectors, NBFCs specialise in meeting the credit needs of niche areas such as hire purchase, financing of physical assets, commercial vehicles and infrastructure loans. PDs perform an important role as market makers for government securities in both primary and secondary markets. This chapter presents an analysis of the financial performance of each of these entities of NBFIs in 2015-16.