As per the Early Warning System, which collects and verify information about the proposed and existing projects, India, in 2018, had 112 active or proposed projects funded by Development Finance Institutions (DFIs).

These institutions included Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB); European Investment Bank (EIB); Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO); Green Climate Fund (GCF); International Finance Corporation (IFC); New Development Bank (NDB) and World Bank (WB). As per the data, last year, India witnessed a total investment of USD 16341 million from the DFIs mentioned above. ADB was the biggest lender with total investments of USD 2049.5 Million, followed by EIB with USD 698.62 Million.

Institution-wise investments in India:

All banks classify projects on the basis of potential for negative impacts. While categorising they take into account project type and scale, the sensitivity of location, the nature and magnitude of its potential environmental and social impacts. The World Bank defines categories as:

Category A
* Significant adverse impacts that are sensitive, diverse, or unprecedented, or that affect an area broader than the sites or facilities subject to physical works
* Conversion/alteration of natural habitats
* Significant quantities of hazardous materials
* Major resettlement

Category B
(Compared with Category A):
* Potential impacts less adverse & more limited, fewer, site-specific, likely reversible
* Mitigation measures can be more easily designed/implemented

Category C
Expected to have no adverse environmental impacts, or only minimal impacts easily and fully mitigated through routine measures

Category FI
The project provides funds to a bank, credit institution, etc. for on-lending at FI’s own risk.

Risk-wise Investments of institutions (in percentage):

Risk-wise Number of Projects (Cumulative):

Sector-wise Investments in per cent:

The infrastructure and transport sector witnessed 53 per cent of all the proposed and active investments. Within this sector, ADB committed the highest 79.83 per cent.

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In a historic 7-1 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court decided in Jam v. IFC that international organizations like the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank Group do not enjoy absolute immunity.

The Court’s decision marks a defining moment for the IFC – the arm of the World Bank Group that lends to the private sector. For years, the IFC has operated as if it were “above the law,” at times pursuing reckless lending projects that inflicted serious human rights abuses on local communities, and then leaving the communities to fend for themselves.

This will be the first time the US Supreme Court has addressed the scope of international organisations’ immunity.

Visit here to know all about the case.